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Ekpo and Saettler (1974) determined that seed transmission of BCMV in bean occurred not through contamination of the testa but from internal seed transmission of the virus through infection of the embryo or cotyledons. This conclusion was vindicated by electron micrographic evidence showing that arrays of BCMV particles were present in virtually all cells and tissues in dormant and germinating bean seeds obtained from experimentally infected plants ( Hoch & Provvidenti, 1978 ). Currently, there is no information on the molecular determinants of seed transmission of BCMV or BCMNV. However, a study of seed transmission of another potyvirus, Soybean mosaic virus, indicates that CP/HC-Pro interactions may be important for this process; an intriguing parallel with processes determining successful aphid-mediated transmission (see Section 7.3 ) ( Jossey et al., 2013 ).

Theo van Hintum , Frank Menting , in Developments in Plant Genetics and Breeding , 2003

14 days or until they have reasonable root systems that can be easily handled. (Note: seed germination can be also performed in situ under 13 C atmosphere, however, it will increase the cost of 13 CO2 gas during the experiment without a significant improvement on 13 C incorporation to the plants.)

2.4.1 Seed sterilization and germination on solid media

Because combines and field equipment are vectors for insects and weed seeds, they can cause cross-varietal contamination without proper attention to this aspect of crop management. Seed contamination is becoming a critical issue in the controversy regarding genetically modified versus nongenetically modified organisms. Also, residues that build up in strategic places on the combine, especially the engine compartment, are a cause of fires. Combines should be cleaned between operations with different cultivars and crops, but this is difficult. A superficial cleanout can be accomplished in approximately an hour by an operator using a compressed air lance, but a whole day may be required to totally free a combine of residues and grain.

The importance of using healthy seeds for controlling CMV epidemics is illustrated by the strategy developed in Australia at the end of the 1980s. CMV epidemics can cause important losses in lupin, and seed-infected lupin plants are the main primary sources from which infection spreads as large patches, while neither pastures nor weed hosts play an essential role as reservoirs ( Jones, 2005 ). Because of the economic impact of the disease, a commercial testing service was created in 1988 to help farmers avoid sowing lupin seeds with CMV infection levels that could compromise the crop. Thresholds of 0.5% and 0.1% of seed infection were determined for zones of moderate or high risk, respectively, and were effective in reducing yield losses in most years. Both aphid populations and CMV outbreaks were forecasted, based upon climatology data for estimating aphid population development and the level of seed infection by the virus ( Thackray et al., 2004 ). The model was validated by 14 years of field data and incorporated into a decision support system for farmers.

Soybean is often attacked by fungal infections during cultivation or postharvest. These fungi can be potential mycotoxin producers. The most frequently studied mycotoxins are produced by species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Alternaria . The occurrence of fungi in soybean seeds has received far more attention than the occurrence of fungi in pods and flowers. This is understandable from a practical standpoint: Infected seeds and infected seedlings developing from them represent greater economic risks in soybean production, and seed contamination with mycotoxins represents a health risk to humans and animals. The Fusarium species identified are: F. equiseti, most frequently recovered from flowers, pods, and seeds (40%), followed by F. semitectum (27%) and F. graminearum (11%). Members of Fusarium genus are known to produce a broad spectrum of toxins including trichothecenes A and B. Among B-type trichothecenes, deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol are important mycotoxins produced by members of the F. graminearum species complex. DON is the most distributed Fusarium mycotoxin and occurs worldwide in crops from temperate regions. Most Alternaria species are opportunistic plant pathogens. Alternaria species are also well known as postharvest pathogens. Some Alternaria species are well known for the production of toxic secondary metabolites, some of which are powerful mycotoxins that have been implicated in the development of cancer in mammals. Among these metabolites with mammalian toxicity are alternariol (AOH) and AOH monomethyl ether (AME). Recently it has been reported that AOH and AME possess cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic properties in vitro. Tenuazonic acid (TA) is a mycotoxin and phytotoxin, produced primarily by A. alternata. TA has been shown to be more toxic than other mycotoxins produced by Alternaria species such as AE, AOH, and AME. These mycotoxins have been demonstrated to be produced by Alternaria species on wheat, tomato, sorghum, pecans, sunflower, and cotton.

Dispersal through seed contamination is particularly important for species like weedy rice/red rice (Oryza sativa L.) and is a primary mechanism for weeds to invade rice fields. In many countries where DSR is practiced, weedy rice has emerged as a major threat ( Baki et al., 2000; Kumar and Ladha, 2011; Rao and Chauhan, 2015; Ziska et al., 2015 ). It has been estimated that even just two red rice seeds per kg of rice, seeded in a rice field, can produce 100 kg/ha of red rice within three seasons ( Noldin, 2000 ). In many Asian countries, seed contamination far exceeds this level, particularly among farmers who save their own seeds. In Vietnam, 314 weedy rice seeds were found per kg of rice seed ( Mai et al., 1998 ). Another survey in Vietnam found that more than one-third of rice seed samples were contaminated with weedy rice seeds ( Mai et al., 2000 ). In Thailand, farmers generally save seeds or obtain these from other farmers’ apparently clean crop. Maneechote et al. (2004) found up to 4000 weedy rice seeds in 1 kg of an apparently clean seed. In Arkansas, USA, seed contamination is thought to be an important factor contributing to the spread of weedy/red rice ( Norsworthy et al., 2007 ). Although there is theoretically zero tolerance for red rice in certified seeds ( Anonymous, 2006 ), several consultants report that seed contamination in certified seeds occurs. Moreover an uncertain number of farmers plant noncertified seeds for which contamination with red rice is not regulated.

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