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cannabis f2 p2 seeds

Many of the seeds that we can find in shops are polyhybrids, crosses between different hybrids. The offspring of such crosses are in many cases quite unstable, producing plants with very different traits. Keep in mind that in these cases, the genetic mix is very varied, so we can not expect polyhybrid offspring to be as homogenous as an F1 hybrid. It’s easy to imagine how complex it can be to stabilise a cross, since we are mixing different genes from different varieties, which makes the selection and stabilisation process of the different traits a very hard work. The vast majority of hybrids on the market are in fact polyhybrids, like the White Russian (Serious Seeds) or Fruity Jack / Jack el Frutero (Philosopher Seeds).

Each variety expresses its genetic code (genotype) with a certain growth and flowering pattern (phenotype), so that pure varieties – with a purest genotype – show great uniformity, with just a few slight differences between phenotypes. We can expect very little variation between landrace specimens of the same variety, giving plants with very similar growth, organoleptic and psychoactive traits. Good examples of these varieties can be Hindu Kush (Sensi Seeds), Colombia Punto Rojo (Cannabiogen) or China Yunnan (Ace Seeds).

The IBL acronym (in-bred line), means that the cross was made using plants with almost identical genotype (inbreeding). On the contray, outbreeding is employed to introduce new genes into the variety. Although it happens naturally, self-pollination is a common technique used by breeders to fix desirable traits and thus stabilise the genetic line, either with landraces or hybrids. In cannabis genetics IBL seeds should present a highly uniform growth. Classic IBL examples are Skunk and Northern Lights (Sensi Seeds) or White Widow (Greenhouse). There is a lot of work behind IBL’s like these, as a large population of pure specimens had to be used to select the correct parents. In addition, the breeder must fight against inbreeding depression, the result of crossing parents with very similar genetic information. The reward for this job made properly is a highly stable seed variety.

BX or Backcross

If we make a cross between two different landrace or IBL lines (parental A and B) with different genotypes, the resulting offspring will be the F1 hybrid, the first filial generation from the cross of the phenotype #1 (Parent A) with the phenotype #2 (Parent B). Commonly in this kind of crosses we will observe a very uniform offspring, depending on how stable the parents are, of course. The F1 hybrid between two pure varieties or IBL’s will show the so-called hybrid vigour – also known as heterosis or outbreeding enhancement – introducing new genes that will produce “better” specimens.

How to create a polyhybrid

Backcrossing is a common technique used by breeders to fix certain traits. This is done by crossing one of the progeny (F1, F2…) with one of the original parents (recurrent parent) which has the desired trait. To have an even more stable expression of the desirable trait, you can cross the BX1 again with the recurrent parent to have a BX2 (squaring) and so on with BX3 (cubing), BX4, BX5.

When we cross two F1 individuals (whether landraces, hybrid or polyhybrid varieties), we obtain the second filial generation or F2, and so on with next generations, F3, F4, etc. The second filial generation often gives a more heterogeneous offspring than the F1; we can expect 25% to resemble parent A, 25% to resemble parent B and 50% will be a mixed expression of traits from both parents. As a consequence the stabilisation work must continue generation after generation ( F3, F4, F5…) until we find the generation that gives a uniform offspring with the traits that we are seeking.

ETHOS Nomenclature
ETHOS was founded on the principle that the current landscape of genetics could be improved through standardization. For that reason, we have stuck to a very specific, consistent methodology for naming our genetics. Generally speaking, letters indicate the process by which the genetics were produced and the number indicates the generation and/or variance expressed by those genetics.

Less than 5% of the parents used in seed-making are genetically stable, and more than 80% of dispensary cannabis has one parent with some genetic relation to the other, and in more than half of the cases, the parents share significant amounts of genetic relation. So, while we refer to crosses from two unique parents as an F1, can we even predicate our terms and nomenclature on a preexisting construct that fundamentally doesn’t apply to this specific space of cannabis breeding?

V1, V2, & V3 – Versions
A “V” indicates a slightly different version of an existing cultivar. As expressions stabilize and versions homogenize, different versions are identified by a V and their respective numeral. A plant with two distinctive versions would be labeled as a V1 or a V2. You typically won’t see a V1 as the first version of the cultivar is its first version, regardless of whether it is an R1 or F1. A V may be used to identify cultivars who have been bred with the goal of an existing cross but using different parents than the original version.

Difference of Opinion
Technically, an F1 is a cross of two unrelated parent cultivars. So, in theory, that would mean that each parent would have to be distinctly unrelated to one another, even in its traceable lineage. In classic genetic models, this would look something like Purple Basil x Green Basil. But, given the hybridization of the genetics industry, are there any true F1’s left in cannabis?

For example:
Mandarin Cookies R1 (V1) = Forum Cut Cookies x Mandarin Sunset
Mandarin Cookies V2 = ETHOS Cookies x Mandarin Sunset (Second Version of Mandarin Cookies)